ارزیابی آب کاربردی و بهره وری آب در تاکستان های کشور

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی

2 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات فنی مهندسی آذربایجان شرقی

3 استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی گروه فنی مهندسی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی اراک

4 عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی فارس

5 عضو هیات علمی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی زنجان

6 گروه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی قزوین، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، قزوین، ایران

7 مربی، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان غربی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش

8 عضو هیات علمی

9 استادیار پژوهش بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج

10 عضو هیات علمی موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی

چکیده

انگور از مهم‌ترین محصولات باغی است که به لحاظ سطح زیرکشت و ارزش اقتصادی و تغذیه‌ای بالا مورد توجه است. ایران با تولید سالانه 8/2 میلیون تن انگور در زمرة کشورهای برتر در تولید این محصول در جهان است. با این همه، اطلاعات دقیقی در خصوص حجم و بهره­وری آب این محصول در کشور وجود ندارد. ازاین­رو، این پژوهش با هدف اندازه­گیری میدانی آب کاربردی و ارزیابی بهره­وری آب تاکستان­های کشور در سامانه­های مختلف آبیاری اجرا شد. در فصل زراعی 98-1397، حجم آب کاربردی توسط باغداران در 164 باغ از تاکستان­های استان‌های قزوین، فارس، خراسان­رضوی، زنجان، آذربایجان­غربی، آذربایجان­شرقی، همدان، مرکزی، خراسان­شمالی و سمنان اندازه­گیری شد؛ در این باغ­ها رقم­های مختلف انگور با روش­های مختلف آبیاری (سطحی و قطره­ای) و شوری­های متفاوت آب آبیاری و خاک با روش­های متفاوت (داربستی و خزنده) کاشته شده­­اند.  مقادیر اندازه­گیری شده با مقادیر برآورد شده به روش پن­من-مانتیث با استفاده از داده­های هواشناسی 10 سال اخیر و همچنین با مقادیر سند ملی آب مقایسه شدند. نتایج مطالعات نشان داد که اختلاف میانگین حجم آب کاربردیو بهره­وری آب در استان‏های منتخب در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار است. میانگین وزنی حجم آب کاربردی 6669 مترمکعب بر هکتار و بهره­وری آب 63/2 کیلوگرم انگوربه­ازای هر مترمکعب آب به­دست آمد. متوسط نیاز خالص آبیاری در مناطق مورد مطالعه به روش پنمن-مانتیث و سند ملی آب به­ترتیب 6645 و 6456 مترمکعب بر هکتار است. دامنة تغییرات راندمان کاربرد در تاکستان­های مورد مطالعه از 68 تا 100 درصد و متوسط آن 89 درصد محاسبه شد. نتایج بررسی­ها حاکی از اعمال کم­آبیاری در اغلب تاکستان­های مورد مطالعه به علت دسترسی­نداشتن به آب کافی است. در این مقاله راهکارهایی برای بهبود بهره­وری آب در تولید انگور نیز ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Vineyards Applied Water and Water Productivity in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fariborz Abbasi 1
  • Abolfazl Nasseri 2
  • M. Rezvani 1
  • M. Goodarzi 3
  • M. Karimi 1
  • A. Eslami 4
  • M. Taheri 5
  • Afshin Uossef Gomrokchi 6
  • Heydar Taifeh Rezaee 7
  • H. Khosravi 1
  • syeed Hassan mousavifazl 8
  • Ali Ghadami Firouzabadi 9
  • J. Baghani 10
  • Nader Abbasi 10
  • M. Akbari 10
1 Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, AERI
2 Agricultural Engineering Research Institue
3 Agricultural Engineering Research Institue
4 Agricultural Engineering Research Institue
5 AREEO
6 Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Qazvin Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Qazvin, Iran.
7 Research Instructor, Agricultural Engineering Research Department, West Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Urmia, Iran
8 Agricultural Engineering Research Institue
9 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering Research, Hamedan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Hamedan, Iran
10 Agricultural Engineering Research Institue
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Grapes is one of the most important horticultural products in terms of cultivation area, economic and high nutritional values. Iran with an annual production of 2.8 million tons, is among the top countries in the production of grape product in the world. However, there are not accurate information on the volume of irrigation applied water and water productivity of this product in Iran. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of measurement of applied water at field scale and evaluation of water productivity of grape in vineyards farms at different hubs of this crop production in Iran.

Methodology
The volume of irrigation water provided by gardeners in 164 vineyards were measured in the provinces of Qazvin, Fars, Khorasan-Razavi, Zanjan, West Azarbaijan, East Azarbaijan, Hamedan, Markazi, Northern Khorasan, and Semnan as hubs of this product. These hubs covered about 80 percent of the irrigated vineyard cultivated areas. In each hub, 1-4 cities with the highest area under vineyard cultivation were selected for evaluation. The measurements were carried out in different irrigation and planting methods, various soils, different salinity of irrigation water and soil and different grape varieties during the growing season of 2018-2019 without interfering with the farmer's irrigation program. The measured values were compared with the net irrigation water requirement estimated by the Penman-Monteith method using the last 10 years meteorological data and also with the national water document values. Crop yield was recorded at the end of the growing season and water productivity was calucated as the ratio of yield to total water (irrigation applied water and effective rainfall). Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible difference between applied water and water efficiency among the hubs. Data adequacy was assessed by using the method prposed by Sarmad et al. (2001).

Results and Discussion
The results showed that the average of applied water and water productivity among the hubs were significant at 1% probability level. The applied irrigation water used in the vineyards and water productivity were 6669 m3/ha and 2.63 kg/m3, respectively. Drip irrigation was about 20% effective compared with surface irrigation in reducing the applied irrigation water in the studied vineyards. Water productivity in drip irrigation orchards was essentially the same as surface irrigation and was not statistically significant. The reason was the lack of proper use and utilization of modern irrigation methods.
The average net irrigation water requirement in the study areas estimated by the Penman-Monteith method using meteorological data for the last 10 years as well as the national water document were 6645 and 6456 m3/ha, respectively. The range of irrigation application efficiency in the studied vineyards was from 68 to 100 and its average was 89%. Comparison of applied water and net irrigation requirement indicated deficit irrigation due to water shortage in vineyards of most hubs. In total, 31% deficit irrigation occurred in the studied vineyards, which is a threat to soil salinity and destruction of soil structure in long-term. Grape planting method had a significant effect on reducing the applied water, increasing grape yield and consequently water productivity. Scaffolding method had a positive and significant effect on all studied indices in comparison with the crawling/reptile planting method. It caused a decrease of about 15% in applied water, an increase of 41% in yield and 37% in crop water productivity.

Conclusions
Due to the fact that vineyards are faced with deficit irrigation and water stress, training the farmers about the accurate and scientific methods of deficit irrigation in the vineyards can be effective to reduce the destructive side effects of water stress. Due to the widespread use of surface irrigation in the vineyards, training and application of methods to improve surface irrigation performance (evaporation reduction methods, using low pressure methods such as gated pipes, mulching, etc.), to increase irrigation efficiency and to reduce irrigation water applied is recommended. Changing traditional planting methods from crawling/reptile to scaffolding and surface irrigation (qana) to furrow, in addition to reducing evaporation, are the effective ways to increase the yield of vineyards and water productivity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation method
  • Irrigation water requirement
  • National document
  • Penman-Monteith
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