عنوان مقاله [English]
In arid and semi-arid regions, due to shortage of permanent surface water resources the optimal use of groundwater becomes important. In this regard, the storage of sub-surface flow within alluvial reservoirs of underground dams appears to be economical, and cost-effective. In some cases, because of the lack of construction materials at the site, the cost increases. In this case a combination of available construction materials and bentonite can meet the required criteria. In this research, by constructing a physical model of underground dam the effect of adding bentonite on decreasing horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity in non-cohesive soil was investigated. For this purpose, 2, 4 and 6% (by weight of dry soil) of bentonite was added to the soil and after compaction by using a model, hydraulic permeability was measured. The results indicated that the hydraulic conductivity decreases with increase in the bentonite content due to the high specific surface area and high swelling potential of bentonite. Also hydraulic conductivity was reduced because of steep slope (up to 4% of bentonite) and with further increase in hydraulic conductivity the reduction rate was slowed down so it can be said that the relationship between the logarithmic graph of hydraulic conductivity and the bentonite content can be represented by a linear model. Based on this model, 4.6 percent of bentonite is required to reduce the saturated hydraulic conductivity of a noncohesive soil equal to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil used in the core of the Sanganeh underground dam (in a similar relative compaction).
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