مطالعه آزمایشگاهی تأثیر شکل‌های مختلف آبشکن بر تغییرات زمانی آبشستگی پیرامون آنها

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی آب و سازه های هیدرولیکی، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه سمنان.

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب و سازه های هیدرولیکی، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه سمنان

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب و سازه‌های هیدرولیکی، دانشکده عمران، دانشگاه سمنان

4 پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

رودخانهپدیده‌­ای است طبیعی و فعالکه کناره‌ها و بستر آن همواره در حال تغییر و فرسایش است. همین امر سبب شده تا مسیر رودخانه طی زمان دستخوش تغییرات و تحولات اساسی شود. روش‌هایی گوناگون برای کاهش فرسایش کناری وجود دارد که یکی از آنها استفاده از آبشکن است. در این پژوهش آزمایشگاهی، تأثیر آبشکن‌‌های سری ساده، T شکل و L شکل در کانال مستقیم بر تغییرات زمانی آبشستگی اطراف آنهابررسی، مقایسه و تحلیل شد. نتایج به­دست آمده نشان می­دهد که آبشکن T شکل در 10 درصد اول مدت زمان آبشستگی به بیش از 90 درصد آبشستگی تعادلی می‌رسد. برای آبشکن ساده و L شکل در 15 درصد اول مدت زمان آبشستگی، این مقدار بیش از 80 درصد است. همچنین، بیشترین عمق آبشستگی در آبشکن ساده و L شکل دیده شده است، این مقدار در حدود سه برابر عمق جریان است. آبشکن T شکل در حدود y3/0 (y عمق جریان است) کمتر از سایر هندسه‌ها درجایگاه اول آبشستگیدارد. عمق حداکثر آبشستگی در همۀ هندسه‌ها کمی عقب‌تر از نوک دماغه ایجاد می‌شود. نتایج مقایسۀ عمق آبشستگی اطراف سه نوع آبشکن در مقاطع مختلف نشان می­دهد که آبشستگی متوسط آبشکن T شکل نسبت به آبشستگی متوسط آبشکن ساده y4/0 و نسبت به آبشستگی متوسط آبشکن L شکل y25/0 کمتر است. سرانجام اینکه برای محاسبۀ تغییرات زمانی آبشستگی، با توجه به شکل هندسی آبشکن، رابطه‌ای پیشنهاد گردید.عمق آبشستگی حاصل از این آزمایش‌ها و رابطۀ پیشنهادی با رابطه­های تخمینی دیگر محققان مقایسه شد. همچنین دیده شد که بیشترین فرسایش در ساحل مقابل آبشکن‌‌ها مربوط به آبشکن L شکل است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Experimental Study on the Effect of Spur Dike’s Different Shapes and on Time Variation of Scour Depth around Them

نویسندگان [English]

  • shahab nayyer 1
  • saeed farzin 2
  • hojat karami 3
  • mohammad rostami 4
1 Msc. Student of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan.
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Water and hydraulic structures engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, semnan University
4 Assistant Professor of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Tehran.
چکیده [English]

The river is an active natural phenomenon, which continuously changes its sides and its bed. This has caused the river course to undergo major changes over time. There are different ways to reduce erosion, one of the ways is using spur dike in sides. In this experimental study, the effect of simple L and T shapes series spur dike on time variation of scour depth around spur dike was analyzed and compared under straight channel condition. The results showed that T shape spur dike within 10% of  elapsed time reaches to more than 90% of equilibrium scouring, whereas for simple and L shape spur dike within 15% of  elapsed time reaches to more than 80% of equilibrium scouring or erosion. Simple and L shape spur dike had the maximum scouring depth which was found to be equivalent to 3times of the flow depth, which was created a bit behind the spur dike's nose. The scouring of T shaped spur dike was 0.3y (y is flow depth) less than other shapes in first position. The results of scour depth comparison in different section around the spur dikes showed that the average of scouring value for T-shaped spur dike was 0.4y and 0.25y less than simple and L-shaped spur dike, respectively. Finally, an equation for calculation of time variation of scour depth due to the shape of the spur dike is proposed. Further, the experimental results of scouring depth as a result of present study was compared with results obtained by other researchers. Also maximum side erosion on the opposite shore was found to belong to L-shaped spur dike.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Simple Spur Dike
  • T-Shaped Spur Dike
  • L-Shaped Spur Dike
  • Series Spur Dikes
  • Scour depth

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