برآورد آب مصرفی در بخش کشاورزی به روش بیلان آب

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی آذربایجان شرقی

2 استاد موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

3 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی

چکیده

حدود دو سوم آب رودخانه‌ها، دریاچه‌ها و آبخوان‌های زیرزمینی جهان در بخش کشاورزی به مصرف می‌رسد. در ایران نیز مانند سایر کشورها، بخش قابل‌توجهی از منابع آب‌های سطحی و زیرزمینی در این بخش استفاده می‌شود. مبنای اساسی برآورد حجم آب مصرفی در بخش کشاورزی تحلیل مؤلفه‌های بیلان آب در سطح کشور است. متغیر بودن میزان بارش سالانه منشأ مؤلفه‌های بیلان آب در چرخة هیدرولوژی و به‌تبع آن، متغیر بودن حجم آب مصرفی در بخش کشاورزی، مهم‌‌ترین دلیلی است که برآورد مجدد مصرف آب در بخش کشاورزی را ضروری می­سازد. بنابراین، در این پژوهش حجم آب مصرفی در بخش کشاورزی با رویکرد تفکیک مؤلفه‌های بیلان آب در چرخة هیدرولوژی بر مبنای داده‌‌های بلندمدت پنجاه‌ساله و کوتاه‌مدت هفت‌ساله بارش در سطح کشور برآورد و تحلیل شده است. میانگین بارش پنجاه‌ساله و هفت‌ساله
به­ترتیب برابر 53
±249 و 33±206 میلی‌متر و میانگین حجم آب مصرفی تعدیل ‌‌نشده در بخش کشاورزی (بدون احتساب تلفات) برای دو دورة یاد شده به­ترتیب برابر 18±67 و 6±83 میلیارد مترمکعب به­دست آمده است. میانگین آب مصرفی تعدیل ‌شده (با احتساب تلفات) در این بخش در دورة هفت‌ساله برابر 6±75 میلیارد مترمکعب معادل حدود 71 درصد آب تجدیدپذیر است. تحلیل‌ها نشان می­دهدکه بر مبنای برازش داده‌های بلندمدت، حجم آب مصرفی در بخش کشاورزی در مقایسه با حجم آب تجدیدپذیر برابر 50 درصد است. به‌روز کردن برآورد حجم آب مصرفی در بخش کشاورزی در کشور و تحلیل تغییرات زمانی آن، برجستگی اساسی این پژوهش است. با این‌‌همه، استفاده از روش بیلان آب برای برآورد مصرف آب در بخش کشاورزی محدودیت‌ها و ساده‌سازی‌های متعددی دارد و برای اطمینان بخشی به نتایج برآوردها، لازم است آزمایش‌‌های میدانی مناسبی صورت گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Estimating Agricultural Water Consumption by Analyzing Water Balance

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Naseri 1
  • Fariborz Abbasi 2
  • Mehdi Akbari 3
1 Associate Professor, AERI
2 Professor, AERI
3 Associate Professor, AERI
چکیده [English]

About two-thirds of rivers, lakes and groundwater are applied for agricultural production in the world. Same as other countries, a significant fraction of surface and groundwater resources are used in agricultural sector in Iran. Water balance at country scale is the origin of estimation of applied water as agricultural consumption. The variability of annual precipitation is as the origin of the components of water balance in hydrological cycle, caused changeability in the water consumption of agricultural sector which are important reasons for estimating and re-estimating consumptive water in agricultural sector. Therefore, in this study, consumptive water of agricultural sector was analyzed based on long term (50 years) and short term (current 7 years) measured data for precipitation with the method of water balance in hydrological cycle in the country. Results revealed that average annual precipitation were 249±53 and 206±33 mm for two long and short studied periods, and the consumption water in agricultural sector were 67 ±18 and 83±6 km3 for long (50 years) and short (7 years) periods for non-modified conditions. The modified consumption water for the short period was 75±6 MCM.Results revealed that for the long period, the water consumption in agricultural sector was 0.50 of renewable water in the country. The outstanding of this study was up to date estimating of the water consumption in agricultural sector and its analysis. But applying water balance method for this purpose has some substantial limitations and non-reliable simplifications. Therefore suitable experiments are needed to reliably the results.
 
Key Words: Agricultural Water Consumption, Hydrological Cycle, Water Balance in the Country, Water Consumption.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural Water Consumption
  • Hydrological Cycle
  • Water Balance in the Country
  • Water Consumption

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