عنوان مقاله [English]
An important biomechanical property of the rice crop for harvesting and post harvesting machines is the threshing, or requirement, force that detaches grain from panicle. This has a principal effect on the power requirements of threshers and combines, threshing efficiency and shattering loss. In this study, tension and pressure testing instruments and specialized clamps were used to measure the detachment force. This force was analyzed in Gilan province for three common paddy rice varieties (Hashemi, Khazar, Hybrid), three moisture content levels (12, 16, 23% w.b.), four speeds (5, 20, 35, 50 mm/min), three directions of force applied to the rice grain (parallel to grain, perpendicular to front of grain, perpendicular to side of grain) and three panicle areas (upper, middle, lower). A randomized complete block design was applied to analyze the data with five replications and the data means were compared statistically. The results of the analysis of variance showed that threshing force is significantly different in the tested varieties. The grain moisture content, direction of applied force, speed of applied force and selection location of spikelet (grain) on panicle also significantly affected the threshing force. The highest threshing force (2.62 N) was obtained for the Hashemi variety with a grain moisture content of 16% (w.b.) where the direction of applied force was parallel to the grain (tensile) at a speed of 35 mm/min to the upper portion of the panicle.