اثر زمان و دوز (مقدار)های مختلف پرتوتابی الکترون سریع بر تغییرات کمی و کیفی سیر سفید (Allium sativum L.) در مدت نگهداری در انبار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان

2 عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشکده تحقیقات کشاورزی، پزشکی و صنعتی کرج

چکیده

با فرایند پرتوتابی می­توان از ضایعات سیر در انبارها جلوگیری کرد.  زمان و دوز(مقدار) پرتو دو عامل موثر در انجام فرایند پرتوتابی هستند، بنابراین توده سیر سفید همدان 30 و 45 روز پس از برداشت با دوزهای 0، 25، 50، 75، 100، و 150 گری پرتوهای الکترون سریع پرتودهی ‌شدند.  طی8 ماه نگهداری در دو شرایط انبار سرد و کنترل نشده برخی عوامل کمی و کیفی سوخ­ها هر دو ماه یک مرتبه اندازه‌گیری و ارزیابی شدند.  نتایج نشان داد که در هر دو شرایط نگهداری، تیمارهای پرتو دیده علایم جوانه‌زنی بیرونی را بروز ندادند و جوانه‌زنی فقط در سیرچه­های پرتو ندیده مشاهده شد.  افت وزنی تیمارهای پرتو دیده کمتر از شاهد بود به‌طوری که پس از 300 روز نگهداری، میانگین افت وزنی سیر در هفته در انبار سرد برای دوزهای 50 گری و بالاتر و در انبار با شرایط کنترل نشده برای دوزهای 75 گری و بالاتر در محدودة پایین یعنی کمتر از 1 درصد قرار داشت.  مقدار پیرووات کل به­ویژه تا 120 روز پس از نگهداری، افزایش یافت ولی اختلاف معنی­داری بین مقادیر آن در دوزهای مختلف پرتوتابی مشاهده نشد.  بین سفتی بافت دوزهای مختلف پرتوتابی اختلاف معنی­دار وجود نداشت، ولی دوزهای 50 گری و بالاتر در انبار سرد و دوزهای 75 گری و بالاتر در انبار با شرایط کنترل نشده، بیشترین مقادیر را داشتند.  اثر زمان­های پرتوتابی یعنی 30 و 45 روز پس از برداشت، بر مقادیر سفتی بافت در هر دو شرایط نگهداری معنی­دار نبود.  تغییرات رنگ و پیرووات غیر آنزیمی در مدت نگهداری در هر دو شرایط افزایش یافت و تغییرات آنها در زمان پرتوتابی 45 روز پس از برداشت بیش از 30 روز پس از برداشت بود.  در مجموع دوز مناسب بین هر دو زمان پرتوتابی برای نگهداری سیر در انبار سرد، 50 گری و در انبار با شرایط کنترل نشده 75 گری بود و برای هر دو شرایط نگهداری، پرتوتابی در زمان30 روز پس از برداشت مناسب­تر تشخیص داده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Treatment Time and Dosage of Fast Electron Irradiation on White Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) During Storage

چکیده [English]

Irradiation is known to inhibit waste in stored garlic. Treatment time and optimum irradiation dosage are two key factors in achieving the least waste in this process. These two factors were investigated on white ecotype bulbs from Hamedan, Iran that were irradiated after harvest for 30 and 45 days using fast electrons at dosages of 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Gy. Different properties of the garlic were measured bimonthly over eight months of storage under both cold and uncontrolled conditions. The results showed that sprouting was observed only in non-irradiated cloves and irradiated cloves showed no signs of external sprouting. Weight loss for non-irradiated bulbs was greater than for the irradiated cloves. The minimum weight loss for cold storage was less than 1% per week at dosages of 50 Gy and higher. For uncontrolled storage, this minimum was achieved at dosages of 75 Gy and higher after 300 days. Total pyruvate, particularly up to 120 days of storage, increased sharply and there was no significant difference between them at the end of storage. While the firmness of irradiated cloves at the end of storage was not significant, the greatest firmness was observed for cold storage at dosages of 50 Gy and higher. For the uncontrolled conditions, this was measured at 75 Gy and higher. During storage, both color change and non-enzymatic pyruvate increased. More change was observed during irradiation at 45 days after harvest than at 30 days. Consequently, it was concluded that for garlic bulbs in cold storage, 50 Gy is the optimum dose of irradiation and, for uncontrolled conditions, 75 Gy is optimum. For both storage conditions, irradiation for 30 days after harvesting seems to be the most suitable period.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • garlic
  • irradiation
  • quality
  • Sprouting
  • storage life
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