عنوان مقاله [English]
A mathematical model was developed for freeze drying in which the dimensions and specifications of the condenser were considered for the first time. An appropriate program was written using MATLAB to solve model equations and simulate the process. The software successfully simulated the drying data of a suspension of 20% milk recorded in a lab scale freeze dryer. The simulator was then used to investigate the effect of dryer specifications on the timing of primary and secondary drying stages. The results showed that primary drying time is proportional to sample thickness squared, but the secondary drying time is less dependent. Condenser temperature nonlinearly affects both drying times. Dependency weakens with an increase in drying chamber temperature and eventually disappears at chamber temperatures above 255K for primary and 330K for secondary stages. The results also showed that a decrease in the condenser heat transfer area from 2 to 0.5 m2 per kg of initial water will increase secondary stage drying time from 11 to 12 hours.