به‌گزینی برنامة تک‌آبیاری و تاریخ کاشت برای جو در شرایط دیم مراغه و تخمین تابع تولید

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی (استادیار پژوهش) بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی استان سمنان (شاهرود)

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و سطوح تک­آبیاری بر عملکرد دو رقم جو دیم، تحقیقی بر پایة طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و به صورت اسپلیت اسپلیت پلات در سه تکرار و به مدت دو سال زراعی (85–1383) در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم، مراغه به اجرا در­آمد.  سه تاریخ کاشت (کرت اصلی) و پنج مدیریت تخصیص تک­آبیاری (کرت فرعی) برای دو رقم جو (کرت فرعی فرعی) بررسی شد.  عملکرد دانه، کاه و کلش و عملکرد زیست توده در شرایط گزاره‌‌های مختلف تک‌آبیاری برای ارقام جو دیم بررسی شد.  تابع تولید جو در شرایط کل آب کاربردی (مجموع بارش و آب آبیاری) برآورد شد.  هر چند رابطة آب کاربردی – عملکرد یک رابطة خطی است اما تفاوت اثربخشی زمان تخصیص و کاربرد آب آبیاری را بیان می‌کند.  بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق و با در نظر گرفتن تاثیر شاخص روز- درجه رشد با اعمال آبیاری محدود پاییزه و نیز تغییرات عملکرد دانه و کاه و کلش، نشان داده شد که مناسب‌‌ترین برنامة آبیاری محدود ارقام جو دیم شامل: تک‌‌آبیاری زمان کاشت و یک آبیاری حداقل در طول دورة ظهور سنبله تا گل‌دهی به عنوان برنامة آبیاری بهاره برای ارقام جو دیم است.  اثربخشی تک‌آبیاری زمان کاشت در استقرار گیاه، جلو افتادن دورة رشد، پنجه‌زنی گیاه و کاهش اثر خسارت سرما، زودرسی و بهبود اجزای عملکرد و عملکرد محصول است.  میزان افزایش عملکرد در این شرایط (میانگین 3794 کیلوگرم در هکتار) افزون بر سه برابر شرایط دیم (میانگین 1170 کیلوگرم در هکتار) است.  افزایش عملکرد ناشی از تک‌آبیاری بهاره نسبت به شرایط دیم، بیش از 1000 کیلوگرم در هکتار است و این افزایش عملکرد ناشی از بهبود ظرفیت آب خاک در فاز زایشی و بهبود اجزای عملکرد (خصوصاً وزن هزار دانه) است.  بنابراین وقتی که حد بهینه تک‌آبیاری با مدیریت مناسب زراعی ترکیب شود، عملکرد جو به طور چشمگیر افزایش می‌یابد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Single Irrigation and Sowing Date for Rainfed Barley in Maragheh Region and Estimation of Production Functions

چکیده [English]

This study investigated the effect of sowing date and limited water allocation management for single irrigation on the grain yield of rainfed barley. The experiment was a split-split plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications from 2004 to 2006 at the main station of the Dryland Agricultural Research Institute at Maragheh. The treatments comprised three sowing dates (early, normal, late) and Yesevi-93 (Abidar), and Dayton (URB79-7) barley varieties. The single irrigation allocations tested were rainfed, planting time irrigation (50 mm and 100 mm), and spring irrigation (50% and 100% depletion of available water). Grain, straw and biomass yields were measured. Barley production function was estimated for total water used (sum of precipitation and irrigation water). Generally, there was a linear function between water use and yield and the effectiveness of the amount and time water allocation was evident. Results showed that single irrigation at planting time and limited single irrigation (50% depletion of available water at root zone) at spring time (during heading to flowering stage) had significant effects on yield and water use efficiency. The average grain yield for single irrigation at planting time (3794 kg.ha-1) was about 300% more than the average for rainfed (1170 kg.ha-1). Single irrigation at planting time caused early crop establishment for autumn and relatively early maturity, which reduced the growing period. The grain yield for spring single irrigation was about 1000 kg.ha-1 more than the average rainfed condition. Spring single irrigation improved soil water content and increased yield and yield components (especially thousand kernel wt.). Thus, wheat production can be substantially and consistently increased under cooperative management of limited single irrigation and agronomic management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Single irrigation
  • Spring single irrigation
  • Water allocation
  • yield
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