بررسی موازنه آب خاک، تاریخ کاشت و عملکرد گندم با استفاده از مدل AquaCrop در شرایط دیم و آبیاری محدود

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 عضو هیات علمی (استادیار پژوهش) بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان سمنان

2 استاد گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد گروه مهندسی آبیاری دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد


مدل­های شبیه­سازی، به دلیل ارائه تأثیرات کمّی آب بر عملکرد محصول، ابزاری ارزشمند برای بهبود مدیریت مصرف آب در مزرعه و فزونی بهره‌‌وری آب هستند.  مدل AquaCrop که سازمان خوار بار و کشاورزی جهان (فائو) آن را توسعه داده است، قابلیت بررسی روند تولید را تحت گزاره‌‌های مختلف دارد.  در این تحقیق به­منظور ارزیابی کارایی نرم‌‌افزار AquaCrop از داده­های دو سالۀ گندم دیم (86-1384) حاصل از یک طرح تحقیقاتی در بالادست حوضۀ کرخه (استان لرستان) استفاده شده است.  آزمایش­های مزرعه­ای شامل: دیم، یک نوبت آبیاری در زمان کاشت و یک نوبت آبیاری در بهار بود که در مزارع کشاورزان اجرا شد.  کاربرد نرم‌افزار AquaCrop در تحلیل نتایج مزرعه‌ای آزمایش‌های آبیاری محدود گندم دیم، حاکی از قابلیت‌‌های این نرم‌افزار در برآورد عملکرد، موازنۀ آب خاک و درصد پوشش گیاهی است.  میانگین انحراف نرمال شده مقادیر شبیه­سازی شده از مقادیر اندازه­گیری شدهبرای درصد پوشش گیاهی، مقدار آب خاک و عملکرد دانه به­ ترتیب برابر 53/8، 34/10 و 34/8 درصد به­دست آمد که مطلوب به نظر می‌رسد.  ضریب کارآیی مدل در تخمین عملکرد، موازنۀ آب خاک و درصد پوشش سبز به ­ترتیب 93/0، 78/0 و 92/0 است.  شاخص سازگاری نزدیک به یک است که نشان از سازگاری مقادیر رطوبت آب خاک، عملکرد دانه و درصد پوشش گیاهی در مدل با مقادیر واقعی دارد.  این مدل تخمین تاریخ مناسب کاشت را برای شرایط دیم فقط منوط به عامل بارش و وقوع میزان مشخص آن کرده است و از این­رو نمی‌تواند برای مناطق سرد و نیمه­سرد کارآمد ‌باشد، اما در بقیه موارد نتایج نشان‌‌دهنده توانمندی مدل در تخمین مناسب عملکرد تحت شرایط دیم و آبیاری محدود است. 


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil Water Balance, Sowing Date and Wheat Yield Using AquaCrop Model under Rainfed and Limited Irrigation

چکیده [English]

Simulation models of the effect of water on crop yield are valuable tools for improving on-farm water management and water productivity. The AquaCrop model has recently been developed by the FAO to predict crop productivity, net water requirements, and water use efficiency for different scenarios, including rainfed and limited irrigation. The model is suitable for evaluating different regions and crops. The present research examined the efficiency of the AquaCrop model for simulating yield, soil moisture content, and crop canopy response to water availability for wheat in rainfed areas. The region under study in Iran was the upper Karkheh River basin in the Selseleh region of Lorestan province during 2005-2007. The on-farm trials included three irrigation treatments (rainfed, single irrigation only at planting time, single irrigation only in spring). To evaluate the model performance and accuracy of prediction, maximum error, normalized root mean square error, and index of agreement were computed from observed and simulated variables (grain yield, soil moisture content, evapotranspiration). The reliability index of normalized RMSE was 8.34% to 10.56% and of efficiency was 0.78 to 0.93. This indicates that the model was able to accurately simulate soil water content of the root zone, grain yield, and crop canopy under research conditions when compared with field data. The d-statistic indicates that the closer the index value is to unity, the better the agreement between the two variables compared and vice versa. The AquaCrop model for estimation of sowing date under rainfed conditions was not efficient because it required a minimum value for precipitation. The model performed satisfactorily for simulation of grain yield, soil water content, and crop canopy for the rainfed and limited irrigation treatments. The AquaCrop requires minimal input data that is readily available or can easily be collected, making it a user-friendly option for users. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • AquaCrop Model
  • Crop canopy
  • Single irrigation
  • Transpiration
  • Water Productivity
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