تعیین مشخصه‌‌های فنی سامانه‌های استحصال و جمع‌آوری آب باران برای بادام دیم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار پژوهش بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان سمنان (شاهرود)،

چکیده

به منظور افزایش بهره‌وری بارش، کاهش سهم مصارف غیرمفید بارش و ایجاد باغ بادام از طریق سامانه‌های مختلف استحصال و جمع‌آوری آب باران در حوضه‌های کوچک (MCWH)، این پژوهش از سال 1379 به مدت 6 سال در استان‌ آذربایجان‌شرقی، شهرستان اسکو – منطقه یال ایلخچی و در دیمزارهای کشاورزان به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای مورد مطالعه شامل آرایش سامانه‌های مختلف استحصال و جمع‌آوری آب باران (شکل و مساحت)، مدیریت سطوح رواناب و بهبود ذخیرة آب خاک در بستر ریشه، برای دو رقم بادام دیر گل پیوندی بوده است. برخی از مشخصه‌های زراعی و رشدی محصول و آستانه رواناب و برآورد عملکرد محصول مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.  بر اساس نتایج تحقیق و با تکیه بر مدیریت کنترل تبخیر در پای درختان، تیمار برتر و قابل توصیه شامل اندازه سطح رواناب 7×7 متر + سطوح رواناب تمیز و غلتک‌زده شده و بدون نیاز به استفاده از پلیمر است و تفاوتی بین شکل حوضه‌های جمع‌آوری رواناب وجود ندارد، اگرچه آرایش مربعی اندکی بر آرایش نیم‌دایره‌ای برتری دارد.  در آزمایش‌های متعدد تعیین آستانة رواناب برای حوضه‌های جمع‌آوری رواناب در تیمار غلتک‌زده، 5/2 تا 5/3 میلی‌متر، در تیمار تمیز و صاف شده، 5/3 تا 5/4 میلی‌متر و در تیمار طبیعی، 5/4 تا 5/5 میلی‌متر اندازه‌گیری و برآورد شد.  در سال 1385 میزان عملکرد تک درخت حدود 3 کیلوگرم برآورد شد که با 204 نهال در هکتار در تیمار برتر، عملکرد 612 کیلوگرم در هکتار خواهد شد. پژوهش‌های تکمیلی برای بررسی جنبه‌های زراعی و حرکت سطحی و زیرسطحی آب در سطوح رواناب در خاک‌ها و شیب‌های مختلف پیشنهاد می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Technical Characters of Micro-Catchments Water Harvesting Systems for Rainfed Almond Trees

چکیده [English]

Water harvesting in agriculture mobilizes rainwater in a catchment area (usually non-productive) to benefit growing plants in a target area. This brings water available to the target area closer to crop water requirements so that economical agricultural production can be achieved, improving rainwater productivity. To investigate micro-catchment water harvesting (MCWH), a field experiment was conducted from 2000 to 2006 in East Azarbaijan in northern Iran using a split-split plot factorial design with five replications. The treatments comprised two MCWH patterns (small basins and semi-circular bunds); three catchments sizes of 25 m2 (5×5, R = 2 m), 49 m2 (7×7, R = 2.85 m) and 81 m2 (9×9, R = 3.7 m); three runoff area treatments (natural; cleaned and smoothed; cleaned, wetted and compacted); and two-infiltration areas (natural, soil mixed with polymer at 1 kg/tree) for two new almond varieties. Agronomic characteristics, product growth, threshold runoff and crop yield estimates were examined. The results were compared with farmed fields (traditional and irrigated) and showed that the tree survival rate was about 35%-55% for irrigated farmed fields and 100% for the MCWH site. The use of a polymer had no significant effect on water retention. Although a small basin (9×9) and runoff area that were compacted using a polymer gave better results for the survival, growth and productivity of almonds, a small basin (7×7) compacted without a polymer is recommended based on the economic analysis. Threshold runoff was 2.5-3.5, 3.5-4.5 and 4.5-5.5 mm for the natural, cleaned and smoothed, and cleaned, wetted and compacted conditions, respectively. During the 2006 season, the fruit yield was estimated to be 3 kg/tree, totaling 612 kg/ha for the recommended treatment. For the farm fields, the optimal treatment combined required at least 1-2 irrigations during the summer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Almond
  • Dryland farming
  • evaporation
  • rain
  • Rain water
  • threshold runoff
  • water harvesting
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