تأثیر آب گرم، اتانول و بخار اسیداستیک بر خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و حسی میوه هلو رقم البرتا (Prunus persica Batsch var elberta)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی

2 استادیار پژوهش بخش تحقیقات باغبانی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف بررسی تأثیر تیمار میوة هلوی رقم البرتا با آب گرم، محلول گرم اتانول، و بخار اسید­استیک در مقایسه با تیمار میوه با قارچ­کش سنتزی بنومیل بر خصوصیات کمی، کیفی و حسی اجرا گردید.  در گام اول تحقیق، تأثیر تیمار آب گرم (45،50، و 55 درجه ­سلسیوس به مدت 1، 3، و 5 دقیقه) بر خصوصیات کمی، کیفی هلو (سفتی بافت، مواد جامد انحلال­پذیر ­در آب، اسید قابل ­تیترکردن، قند، ویتامین‌ث، کاهش ­وزن و آلودگی ­قارچی) و حسی (بافت، طعم ­و ­مزه و پذیرش­کلی) طی 45 روز نگهداری (در دمای 1±0 درجه ­سلسیوس و رطوبت ­نسبی90 تا 95 درصد) در مقایسه با قارچ­کش بنومیل (غوطه­وری به مدت 5/0 دقیقه در محلول500 میلی­گرم ­بر لیتر) بررسی شد.  نتایج نشان می­دهد که کارآیی تیمارهای غوطه­وری میوه در
آب گرم50 درجه سلسیوس به مدت 1 دقیقه و در آب­ گرم 45 درجه ­سلسیوس به مدت 3 دقیقه در حفظ خصوصیات کمی، کیفی و حسی میوة هلو مشابه استفاده از قارچ­کش بنومیل است.  در گام دوم این تحقیق، تأثیر تیمار میوه با محلول گرم اتانول (5/2، 5، 10، و20 درصد با دمای 45 و 50 درجه ­سلسیوس) بر خصوصیات کمی، کیفی و حسی میوه هلو طی 45 روز نگهداری در سردخانه با تأثیر تیمار میوه با قارچ­کش بنومیل مقایسه و نتیجه­گیری شد که محلول اتانول 10 درصد با دمای50 درجه سلسیوس و محلول اتانول 20 درصد با دمای 40 درجه ­سلسیوس باعث حفظ خصوصیات کمی، کیفی و حسی میوه هلو می­شوند و کارآیی آن­ها مشابه کارآیی تیمار میوه با قارچ­کش است.  در گام سوم تحقیق، تأثیر تیمار میوه با بخار اسیداستیک در ‌غلظت­های صفر (شاهد)، 35/1، 2، 7/2، 4، و30/5 درصد به مدت یک ­ساعت بررسی شد و نتایج نشان داد که بخاردهی با محلول اسیداستیک 4 و 7/2 درصد بیش از تیمارهای دیگر باعث حفظ خصوصیات کمی، کیفی و حسی میوه هلو می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Hot Water, Ethanol and Acetic Acid Vapor on Physical, Chemical and Organoleptic Characteristics of Peaches (Prunus persica Batsch cv. elberta)

چکیده [English]

This research was conducted to determine the effect of hot water, ethanol and acetic acid vapor treatments on the characteristics of stored peaches (var elberta). Benomyl fungicide was applied to the control groups for all phases of study. In the first phase, the effect of hot water (immersion in 45, 50, 55 °C water for 1, 3, 5 min) on the quantitative (weight loss), qualitative (total soluble solids, flesh firmness, postharvest decay, acidity, vitamin C) and organoleptic (texture, aroma, total acceptance) characteristics of peaches over 45 days of storage (temp: 0±1°C and RH: 90 95%) were studied. Benomyl fungicide was applied at 1000 ppm for 0.5 min to the control peaches. The results showed that treating fruit with hot water 50°C for 1 min and 45°C for 3 min had the same effect as fungicide on fruit quality. In the second phase, the effect of hot ethanol solutions (2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20 %at 40 or 50 °C) was compared with the control group over 45 days storage. The results showed that treating fruits with 10% ethanol solution at 50°C and 20% ethanol solution at 40°C both had the same effect as using benomyl fungicide. The third phase studied the effect of acetic acid fumigation (1.35%, 2%, 2.7%, 4%, 5.30% for 1 h). The results showed that peaches treated with 2.7% and 4% acetic acid solutions preserved the quantitative, qualitative and organoleptic characteristics of fruits in a condition similar to the fungicide control group.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Acetic Acid
  • Benomyl
  • Ethanol
  • Fungal decay
  • Hot Water
  • Peach
  • Shelf life
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