تأثیر مدیریت بقایای گیاهی و زمان انجام پی‌آب بر عملکرد گندم آبی در سیستم کاشت روی پشته‌های عریض

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان فارس

چکیده

از عوامل مؤثر بر عملکرد گندم، استفاده بهینه از بقایای گیاهی و آب است.  از این رو نیاز است تا روش‌های مدیریت بقایای گیاهی و زمان اجرای پی‌آب روی پشته‌های عریض بررسی و ارزیابی شود.  این تحقیق در قالب طرح آماری
اسپلیت بلوک و به‌مدت سه سال اجرا شد.  تیمار اصلی، مدیریت بقایای گیاهی شامل: الف، سوزاندن بقایای گیاهی،
ب، خارج کردن قسمت عمده­ای از بقایای گیاهی+ ساقه خردکردن و ج، خارج کردن قسمت عمده‌ای از بقایای گیاهی
+ ساقه خردکردن + شخم با گاوآهن برگردان‌دار است.  تیمار فرعی زمان اجرای پی‌آب شامل: الف، 7 روز پس از کاشت، ب، 14 روز پس از کاشت و ج، 21 روز پس از کاشت در 3 تکرار است.  پارامترهای شاخص مخروطی خاک، درصد رطوبت خاک، درصد سبز، درصد بقایای گیاهی مانده بر سطح خاک، میزان آب مصرفی و عملکرد گندم‌ اندازه‌گیری شد.  نتایج نشان می‌دهد که تیمار استفاده از ساقه خردکن + گاوآهن برگردان‌دار، در مقایسه با سوزاندن بقایای گیاهی، باعث کاهش: شاخص مخروطی خاک به‌میزان 8/ 18 درصد، میزان سبز شدن 7 درصد، بقایای گیاهی مانده بر سطح خاک به‌میزان 63 درصد و آب مصرفی به‌میزان 5 درصد و نیز باعث افزایش ماده آلی خاک به‌میزان 5/3 درصد، عملکرد گندم به‌میزان
  5 درصد و کارآیی مصرف آب بر اساس عملکرد گندم به‌میزان 3/11 درصد شده است.  نتایج همچنین نشان می‌دهد که زمان اجرای پی‌آب تأثیر خاصی بر عملکرد گندم ندارد و می‌توان آن را به‌مدت 21 روز از تاریخ کاشت به تاخیر ‌انداخت یا به‌عبارت دیگر آن را حذف کرد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Residue Management and Time of Post-Irrigation on Wheat Yield in a Raised-Bed Planting System

چکیده [English]

The effective parameters of the present study on wheat yield were the optimum use of residue and water. The effects of residue management and post-irrigation methods on raised bed planting systems were evaluated for irrigated wheat. This study was a split-block design with three replications. The levels of residue management considered as main plots were burned straw (B), partial removal of straw + stalk shredder (R), and partial removal of straw + stalk shredder + moldboard plowing (RP). The effects of delay of post-irrigation was measured at 7 d (I7), 14 d (I14), and 21 d (I21) after planting for the sub-plots. The soil cone index, moisture content, percentage of plant emergence, percentage of surface residue cover, weight of 1000 kernels, water use, and wheat yield were measured. The results indicated that treatment RP decreased the cone index 18.8%, plant emergence 7%, surface residue cover 63%, and water use 5%, and increased organic matter 3.5%, wheat yield 5%, and water use efficiency based on wheat yield 11.3% compared to treatment B. The results also showed that timing of post-irrigation had no significant effect on wheat yield. This indicates that post-irrigation can be delayed until 21 d after planting, which effectively eliminates the need for post-irrigation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • irrigated wheat
  • Post-irrigation
  • Raised bed
  • Residue management
  • Water use efficiency
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