بررسی تناسب پوشش‌های مصنوعی زهکشی با خصوصیات خاک در اراضی دشت شادگان با استفاده از آزمون نفوذسنجی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات آبیاری و زهکشی مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی

2 فارغ‌التحصیل مقطع کارشناسی ارشد

3 عضو هیات علمی گروه آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

انتخاب پوشش (فیلتر) مناسب، یکی از موارد اصلی در تضمین عملکرد سامانه­های زهکشی زیرزمینی است.  در سال­های اخیر تأمین پوشش­های دانه­ای (شن و ماسه) به­دلایلی مانند دوری معادن از محل اجرای پروژه­ها، هزینه زیاد، نامتناسب بودن
دانه­بندی با خاک محل و مسائل زیست­محیطی دشوار شده است و به­همین دلایل کاربرد پوشش­های مصنوعی به­عنوان جایگزین مطرح شده که نیاز به بررسی و تأیید دارد.  در این تحقیق، با توجه به اهمیت تطابق پوشش زهکشی با خصوصیات خاک و شرایط هر منطقه، تناسب پوشش­های مصنوعی رایج برای استفاده در اراضی تحت زهکشی دشت شادگان واقع در استان خوزستان بررسی شده است.  به این منظور، آزمون­های نفوذسنجی مطابق استاندارد ASTM D-5101 روی سه نمونه پوشش مصنوعی PLM شامل یک نمونه با مشخصه تجاری PP450 تولید خارج و دو نمونه با مشخصه­های تجاری PP450 و PP700 تولید شده در یکی از کارخانه­های داخل کشور اجرا شد.  مقادیر هدایت هیدرولیکی و نسبت گرادیان مجموعه خاک- پوشش مصنوعی برای سه پوشش فوق تعیین شد.  متوسط هدایت هیدرولیکی برای پوشش­های PP450 خارجی و PP450 و PP700 ایرانی به­ترتیب 21/0، 11/0 و 13/0 متر در روز و متوسط نسبت گرادیان برای این پوشش­ها به­ترتیب 86/1، 78/0 و 84/0 به­دست آمد.  با توجه به مقادیر نسبت گرادیان و تغییرات هدایت هیدرولیکی، عملکرد پوشش­های PP450 و  PP700ایرانی نزدیک به­ هم ارزیابی شد و در الویت قرار گرفت، اما مقادیر هدایت هیدرولیکی و نسبت گرادیان مجموعه خاک- پوشش PP700 ایرانی، درصد تغییرات و نوسان کمتری را در خلال آزمون از خود نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Drainage Synthetic Envelopes Proportionality with the Soil Properties of Shadegan Plain Using Permeameter Test

چکیده [English]

Selecting a proper envelope (filter) guarantees the performance of underground drainage systems. Mineral and granular envelopes (sand and gravel) have drawbacks such as distance of source from project, high cost, inappropriate gradation of envelope in relation to soil and environmental issues. The use of synthetic envelopes is an alternative, but needs further investigation. There are different types of synthetic envelopes and it is important to adapt the products with soil and regional conditions. The present study investigated the suitability of conventional synthetic envelopes for the Shadegan irrigation and drainage project in Khuzestan province. The permeameter tests compliant with standard ASTM D-5101 were carried out for three samples: an imported PLM synthetic envelope (PP450) and two samples produced by domestic Iranian factory (PP450, PP700). The hydraulic conductivity (HC) and gradient ratio (GR) of the soil-synthetic envelope combinations were determined. The results showed that average HC for the PP450, PP450 and PP700 were 0.21, 0.11 and 0.13 m/d, respectively; the average GR were 1.86, 0.78, and 0.84, respectively. The results suggest that the use of the Iranian PP450 and PP700 envelopes, which have similar functional abilities, is preferable, but PP700 showed less variation during testing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gradient ratio
  • Permeameter
  • Physical Clogging
  • Shadegan
  • Subsurface drainage
  • Synthetic PLM
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