First Pages
text
article
2016
per
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105719_0e1996fb3e76f6e23eb0cb730fa5ce70.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105719
Hydraulic Simulation of Sewage Discharge in an Irrigation and Drainage System by Changing the Vertical Angle of the Bottom Circular Buoyant Jet
جواد
احدیان
دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز
author
سعید
پی پل زاده
دانشگاه شهید چمران
author
منا
امیدواری نیا
سازمان آب و برق خوزستان
author
text
article
2016
per
Sewage discharged into an ambient water system such as a river or sea is a serious problem in irrigation and drainage networks. Concerns about pollution require decreasing the initial dilution for disposal of brine wastewater into ambient environments. A quick and effective way to dilute dense waste flow is turbulence from a submerged jet. The present research investigated use of a buoyant jet at different vertical angles and fluid injection rates on dilution. Flow-3D was used for modeling. Angles of 30°, 37.5°, 45°, 52.5° and 60° were considered at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 g/l and different jet injection discharges. The experimental data was then used for verification and validation. The results showed that the RNG k-e turbulence model with an error of about 9.5% had acceptable accuracy in the prediction of jet trajectory properties of injection flow. These results also showed that increasing the length (LM) decreased the peak height of the trajectory curve. The quantitative findings showed that the difference between the distance ratio of the peak trajectory at a 45° angle was twice that of the 30° and 60° angles at the different densimetric Froude numbers. The maximum and minimum dilution values at the peak trajectory were 0.68 and 0.48, respectively. At the peak for the return point, the maximum and minimum values were 0.42 and 0.03, respectively.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
1
18
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105698_fd93163fc5aa6fb17dfe0e01b02b0c39.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105698
Estimation of Scour Depth of Piers in Hydraulic Structures using Gaussian Process Regression
ali
rezazadeh joudi
Msc, water civil engineering, young researchers and elite club, Maragheh branch, Islamic azad university, Maragheh, iran.
author
mohamadtaghi
sattari
عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه تبریز/ گروه مهندسی آب
author
text
article
2016
per
The stability of bridge piers on rivers or in wide and deep irrigation channels is a major concern for hydraulic structural engineers. Despite development of several empirical equations for determining local scour depth at bridge abutments in hydraulic laboratories, for field data, which is affected by uncontrollable environmental circumstances, no comprehensive relationship has been reported. Gaussian process regression (GPR) is a data mining method consisting of a set of random variables that, according to normal characteristics using kernel functions, have a high ability to solve nonlinear problems. This study evaluated the efficiency of GPR for estimating pier scour depth using field scour data and compared the results with those from eight empirical equations. Of the empirical equations studied, the Froehlich empirical equation showed the best performance and was more accurate than the other experimental equations. When estimating the scour hole depth using dimensional parameters and GPR with a Pearson kernel function, the combination of input parameters of pier form factor, pier width, average particle size of bed sediment, and depth of stream provided the best-case scenario. The results represent the greatest efficiency and highest accuracy of GPR in comparison with empirical equations to estimate scour depth using sets of field data.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
19
36
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105699_0e44271d7aad24b1c4967f88ba676783.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105699
Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks to Estimate Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity by Soil Texture
A Case Study for Fath-Ali Irrigation Network in Moghan Plain
یاسر
حسینی
دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
author
رضا
صدقی
دانشکده فنی وحرفه ای سما،دانشگاه آزاد اردبیل،اردبیل،ایران
author
text
article
2016
per
Direct measurement of soil hydraulic conductivity is time-consuming and expensive. Direct measurement of soil hydraulic properties can be replaced by simple measurement of properties such as soil texture and bulk density using transfer functions and an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The present study used ANFIS and neural network models to estimate saturated soil hydraulic conductivity. The model inputs included percentage of silt, clay, and sand. The architecture for this network contained 3 neurons in the input layer and 11 neurons in the hidden layer using the tangent sigmoid transfer function, and an output layer of neurons with a linear transfer function and 1000 iterations. In all networks, the learning rate and momentum was 0.3. The neuro fuzzy inference system had 27 rules, a Gaussian membership function was used for input data, and a hybrid method was used to optimize the ANFIS model. The root mean square error (mmd-1), percentage of relative error (ε), mean absolute error (cmd-1), coefficient of residual mass, efficiency, and coefficient of determination were used to evaluate the performance of the model. For the ANFIS model, these values were 0.032, 0.62%, 0.18, -0.0000023, 0.999, and 0.997, respectively. The values for the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm were 1.22, 1.44%, 1.21, -0.00015, 0.997, and 0.99, respectively. Performance evaluation of the models showed that the ANFIS model predicted soil hydraulic conductivity with greater accuracy than did the neural network and the results of this method were closer to actual measurement results.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
37
54
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105700_dc6e9d2403f92c89f501567a12c67d58.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105700
Hydraulic Evaluation of Horizontal and Sloping Broad-Crested Weirs in a Channel Bend
مهدی
یاسی
دانشگاه ارومیه
author
اکبر
ولیمحمدی
دانشگاه ارومیه
author
text
article
2016
per
Construction of weirs in river bends results in non-uniformity of water flow across a channel bend and can reduce the performance of intake structures on both sides of the river. It was hypothesized that more uniform distribution of flow across the bend can be achieved by changing the weir-crest profile from horizontal to sloping. The present study tested the performance of horizontal and sloping broad-crested weirs in a channel bend to achieve the most uniform distribution of unit flow rates across the river bend. The results indicate that horizontal crested weirs were sufficient at the entrance and exit of the bend, but within the bend reach, sloping crest weirs provided better convergence of the unit flow rates across the bend. It is recommended that the slope of the weir crest incline 2º to 5º toward the outer bank of the bend. The best location for the weir inside the bend is at that angular sections at 30°, 60°, and 45°, respectively. The flow equation over the weir was derived using mathematical and dimensional analysis. Discharge coefficient Cd was examined for free to submerged flow as a function of the position of the weir along the bend, geometry of the weir, upstream head water, and downstream tail water.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
55
70
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105701_94d468a2ec493d224f800eba14a1e2de.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105701
Sediment Trap and Flow Components in the Channel with Vegetation Cover
Nader Gholi
Ebrahimi
استادیار پژوهشی پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی
author
Azim
Shirdeli
عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه زنجان
author
Hosna
Shafaei
دانشجوی کارشناسیارشد رشته سازههای آبی، دانشگاه زنجان
author
text
article
2016
per
Vegetation cover is a major environmental issue in rivers, streams, and irrigation channels. It constrains water discharge, increases sediment accumulation, and traps river loads. The present research experimentally determined the effects of vegetation coverage in an irrigation channel on its hydrological characteristics. The rate of sediment trapping, sediment load from the exit point of the flume, Froude number, and bed slope were assumed as the experimental boundaries to test different types of vegetation coverage. A flume was constructed at the Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Institute that was 7 m in length and 25 cm in width. Testing was conducted at three vegetation densities (12%, 25%, and 50%) at water discharge rates of 4, 6, and 8 l.s-1. These conditions were repeated at bed slopes of 0.002, 0.004, and 0.006. A sediment load of 4000 g/min was added for each test. The highest sediment trap efficiency was reported at 50% vegetation coverage density and a Froude number of 0.015 with water discharge of 4 (l.s-1) and a bed slope of 0.002%. The results revealed an increase in sediment discharge as the Froude number decreased. The rate of sediment trapping increased as the vegetation density increased. An increase in load and a decrease in rate trap efficiency of vegetation were recorded for the steeper flume bed.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
71
84
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105702_110811ea4ef7db5e9982f19f9229fc7a.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105702
Numerical Modeling of Seepage Flow Behavior from Permeable Alluvial Foundations
الهه
آذر
مدرس دانشگاه آزاد خوراسگان
author
محمد
صدقی اصل
استادیارگروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه یاسوج
author
منصور
پرویزی
استادیارگروه مهندسی عمران، دانشکده فنی مهندسی، دانشگاه یاسوج
author
text
article
2016
per
The protection of agricultural lands from sea water intrusion in countries with low coasts is of great importance. The present study investigated a soil failure mechanism to measure seepage force by numerical simulation of a laboratory coastal dike in FLAC software using the finite difference method. The results indicate that the FLAC model properly simulated soil behavior. The model predicted boiling with high accuracy and it was possible to predict the heaving mechanism after use of blanket and sheet piles seepage control measures using the stress analysis before implementing the final design. The results show that it is possible to decrease the hydraulic gradient and, thus, risk of boiling by lengthening the flow path. The safety factor was determined using FLAC without the need for manual calculation. Terzaghi equations indicate that the safety factor against boiling depends on several geotechnical parameters. The safety factor was determined in FLAC by considering the geotechnical parameters of friction angle, angle of dilation, type of material, and angle of friction between the soil and sheet pile.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
85
100
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105703_32c8b789780aa7631aca9012df3d070e.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105703
Dynamic Planning for Control of Pressure Fluctuations in Irrigation Pumping Stations Equipped with Variable Speed Pumps
مرتضی
دلفان آذری
دانشجو/دانشگاه تهران
author
عاطفه
پرورش ریزی
هیئت علمی گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی دانشگاه تهران
author
text
article
2016
per
A common problem in most irrigation systems during operation is pressure fluctuation. This issue is often neglected, but special measures must be considered to control and regulate it. The present research presents a method coded in MATLAB/mfile based on the use of variable speed pumps and pressure sensors installed at key points of the system to control and regulate pressure fluctuation. This method can predict and control causes of pressure fluctuations in the system and help to increase the efficiency of operation. The pressure sensors at key locations recorded pressure data over time. Dynamic planning using the data allowed decision-making to reduce fluctuations to continue pumping by transmitting information to the variable control drive through the program output. The results show that the use of this method in pumping stations equipped with variable speed pumps can reduce pressure fluctuations and optimize performance at the pumping station. The use of this method produced an RMSE index in the pressure fluctuation domain (±5% and ±10%) of 0.3 from a value of 0.9 before pressure control.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
101
116
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105704_a67ef4076f71981dc35ebbbf73e642a8.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105704
Effect of Air Entrainment Admixture on Water Absorption Parameters of Concrete Linings of Irrigation Canals
REZA
BAHRAMLOO
عضو هیئت علمی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی همدان
author
Nader
Abbasi
Researcher in Agricultural enginering Research Institute, kARAJ, Iran
author
text
article
2016
per
The current research examined the effect of air entrainment admixture (AEA) on the water absorption characteristics of concrete used in irrigation canal linings. Six concrete mixtures (treatments) were designed and constructed using at AEA values of 0%, 0.01%, and 0.03% of cement weight for cement contents of 325 and 350 kg/m3. Testing was carried out on fresh and hardened concrete mixtures. The results showed that by increasing the AEA and cement content increased the slump, porosity, and water absorption of the fresh concrete and decreased its gravity. Increasing the AEA at both cement contents from 0.01% to 0.03%, decreased initial and final water absorption and water depth penetration of hardened concrete and increased capillary water absorption. The results confirm that the durability indices of the concrete lining improved significantly with the addition of 0.03% AEA.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
117
132
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105705_93d06fd474dca130d6b4db98218ecf7d.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105705
Hydraulic Effects of Jet Current Alignment on Flow Pattern in a Cylindrical Aquaculture Tank
مسعود
ساجدی سابق
عضو هیات علمی
author
مجتبی
صانعی
عضو هیات علمی
author
حسینعلی
عبدالحی
عضو هیات علمی
author
شهرام
بهمنش
عضو هیات علمی
author
عباس
متینفر
عضو هیات علمی
author
text
article
2016
per
In recirculating aquaculture systems, inlet flow current usually enters from the inner pyramid of the tank in the form of submerged jets. The hydraulics of jet alignment has an important effect on flow uniformity and solid removal efficiency. This paper examined experimental analysis of flow pattern in a cylindrical tank by placing a nozzles at each of three depths using four angle options (20°, 40°, 60°, and 80°) between the radius and jet alignments. The results indicate that angles of 40° and 60° created more uniform current in the tank. Changing the jet alignment from 20° to 80° decreased the number of local eddies and increased the average velocity in the tank. Comparison of inlet currents from one nozzle and from three nozzles showed that increasing the number of nozzles increased the jet velocity and the average velocity in the tank, but decreased the ratio of average velocity of the tank to external velocity of the nozzle jet. Paired comparisons of four options (average velocity for angles of 20° (op. 1), 40° (op. 2), 60° (op. 3), and 80° (op. 4)) show that options 2 and 3 had the strongest correlation. Shear stress monitoring in a round tank showed that shear stress increased at the stations of options 2 and 4. Increasing the ratio of h/H, increased the Froude number near the bed of the tank.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
133
144
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105706_e7c461f9e98d56273d873aa1de4f9556.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105706
Effect of Nano-Silica and Superplasticizer on Concrete Abrasive Resistance of Hydraulic Structures
صادق
حبشی
نیکتابانتز
author
جواد
احدیان
عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، گروه سازههای آبی
author
sakineh
soleymaninia
دانشجو/دانشگاه شهیدچمران اهواز
author
text
article
2016
per
Conventional concrete is widely used in hydraulic structures because of its availability. It is, however, possible to add compound nano-materials with very low weights to strengthen and increase the durability of concrete and, in this way, to increase its lifespan. The present research examined the effects of nano-silica and superplasticizer (resin-based plasticrete) additives on the abrasive strength of the concrete compared to conventional concrete. The test scenarios to create the desired concrete types used cement types 2 and 5. Nano-silica was added at 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% of the weight of the cement. The super-plasticizer was tested at 0.5%, 0.8%, 1.1%, 1.4%, and 1.7%. All tests were conducted at the Niktaban-Dez laboratory over processing periods of 7, 28, and 42 d. A total of 60 tests for level of abrasion were done on the specimen. The results showed that by adding nano-silica and super-plasticizer to concrete made with cement types 2 and 5 initially increased and then decreased the abrasive strength of the concrete compared to conventional concrete. The mass loss with the addition of 6% and 8% nano-silica decreased and then increased. The minimum mass at 7, 28, and 42 d decreased 40%, 31% and 50% for type 5 cement and 27%, 32% and 50% for type 2 cement, respectively, over conventional concrete. The results showed that the abrasive strength with the optimum percentage of nano-silica and superplasticizer, respectively, was 6% and 0.8% for type 2 cement and 8% and 0.8% for type 5 cement.
Irrigation and Drainage Structures Engineering Research
Agricultural Engineering Research Institute
2476-4000
16
v.
65
no.
2016
145
158
http://idser.aeri.ir/article_105707_b2d679e602bf13f9d82fc7f0e75342e6.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.22092/aridse.2016.105707